The economic circumstances of life can have profound effects on a child’s school performance. Deep and persistent poverty, for instance, can impede a child’s natural cognitive development and create emotional stressors that affect academic outcomes. Socioeconomic status, which is distinct from income, includes such factors as parental education and parental occupational prestige; it, too, constitutes a strong predictor of academic achievement. While it is clear that there is a relationship between SES and academic achievement, however, the mechanism through which SES affects achievement is still unclear. This library includes research on both economic issues and socioeconomic factors that influence how a child does in school, and which interventions seem to close the achievement gap.